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PDF. According to Paul Reynolds, founder of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, "by the time they reach their retirement years, half of all working men in the United States probably have a period of self-employment of one or more years; one in four may have engaged in self-employment for six or more years. entreprendre, dt. Entrepreneurship Theories. It keeps entrepreneurship sustainable in a competitive environment. It acquires something new of value front, the competitive environment or achieves the competitors’ technical capacities. through entrepreneurship centers or websites). B. durch die Möglichkeit der Kapitalbeschaffung in der Familie) werden jedoch auch Defizite deutlich (z. William J. Baumol nennt als Beispiel für unproduktives Unternehmertum die US-amerikanische Anwaltschaft, die teils mehr verdient als ihre Unternehmensklienten, als Exempel für destruktives Unternehmertum die Korruption in China, die einen beträchtlichen Anteil des Sozialprodukts verschlingt. An Economic Theory 4 Given by Mark Casson in his book The Entrepreneur—An Economic Theory Demand for entrepreneurship arise from the need to change and the supply of entrepreneurship is limited. Third, it discusses an action regu-lation theory to better understand the psychology of entrepreneurship. quality or service), Early, frequent intense and well-targeted marketing, Wealth can enable an entrepreneur to cover start-up costs and deal with, Dominant race, ethnicity or gender in a socially stratified culture, Whaples, Robert. As an academic field, entrepreneurship accommodates different schools of thought. Weiterhin abgrenzen lässt sich der Entrepreneur vom Intrapreneur. These theories suggest that entrepreneurial behavior is a function of the individual’s interaction with the society. Proceedings of the International Conference for Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development. Blind Assumptions in Theory Development; Business research", "Language, communication, and socially situated cognition in entrepreneurship. Jahrhundert. [40] According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation. [112] Some people may be able to use[weasel words] "an innate ability" or quasi-statistical sense to gauge public opinion[113] and market demand for new products or services. In this treatment, the entrepreneur was an implied but unspecified actor, consistent with the concept of the entrepreneur being the agent of x-efficiency. Als Voraussetzung für erfolgreiches Unternehmertum werden auch spezifische Persönlichkeitsmerkmale, Verhaltensweisen und Einstellungen angesehen. [165] Donald Bruce and John Deskins found literature suggesting that a higher corporate tax rate may reduce a state's share of entrepreneurs. Das unternehmerische Handeln besteht aus Sicht der meisten Theoretiker aus folgenden vier Komponenten, die freilich unterschiedlich gewichtet werden: Dazu gehört weiterhin, ein bestehendes Unternehmen am Leben zu erhalten, auf Krisen, Veränderungen – z. It is a common mantra for one to learn from their past mistakes, so leaders should take advantage of their failures for their benefit. In their book The Business of Culture (2015), Rea and Volland identify three types of cultural entrepreneur: "cultural personalities", defined as "individuals who buil[d] their own personal brand of creativity as a cultural authority and leverage it to create and sustain various cultural enterprises"; "tycoons", defined as "entrepreneurs who buil[d] substantial clout in the cultural sphere by forging synergies between their industrial, cultural, political, and philanthropic interests"; and "collective enterprises", organizations which may engage in cultural production for profit or not-for-profit purposes. Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of new businesses fail. This is because both of them bring about change and growth in a person. [28] Especially in Britain, the term "adventurer" was often used to denote the same meaning. Nur 1,4 Prozent der 18- bis 64-Jährigen sind gerade im Begriff, ein Unternehmen zu gründen. A vast literature studying the entrepreneurial personalityhas found that certain traits seem to dominate in the case of entrepreneurs: 1. [12] Das Internet spielt heute dabei eine große Rolle. For Schumpeter, entrepreneurship resulted in new industries and in new combinations of currently existing inputs. Nascent entrepreneurship that emphasizes the series of activities involved in new venture emergence,[88][89][90] rather than the solitary act of exploiting an opportunity. [53], Vor allem der Assistenzialismus mit seinen großzügigen Transferleistungen in Regionen ohne die Tradition eines selbstständigen verantwortlichen Unternehmertums wie z. In this sense, over time, the nascent venture can move towards being discontinued or towards emerging successfully as an operating entity. Gegenüber Schumpeters Beitrag aus dem 20. This is often problematic since the investor and the founder might have different incentives regarding the long-term goal of the company. [109] On the other hand, Reynolds et al. The e-entrepreneurship field is a relatively novel one, suffering from a lack of theories and models, as researchers are deriving theories from other disciplines, such as economics, psychology, etc. Michelacci and Schivardi believe that in order for an individual to reach the full success they need to have education beyond high school. Entrepreneurship and small firms. Hoselitz’s Theory (Emphasis on Marginal Groups) 9. 2. Verwandt mit dem Begriff des unternehmerischen Milieus sind der des kreativen Milieus, der durch die sog. The concept of x-efficiency is also used in the theory of bureaucracy. Jahrhundert zuerst von B. F. de Belister eine Person genannt, die Waren zum kontrahierten Preis verkauft und versucht, sie möglichst billig einzukaufen (sog. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. [165] Because of this, many studies have been done on the effects of taxes on entrepreneurs. Rank argues that entrepreneurs need to be able to intensify the advantages of their new product or service and downplay the disadvantages to persuade others to support their venture. Entrepreneurship resources and facilities (e.g. Nach Frank H. Knight (1921, 1967) muss der Entrepreneur oft unter Unsicherheit entscheiden, die sich anders als ein Risiko nicht quantifizieren lässt; aber er schafft auch Unsicherheit für andere. Pinchot (1985) prägte den Begriff Intrapreneurship, um unternehmerische Aktivitäten innerhalb einer Organisation oder eines Organisationsbereichs zu beschreiben, die/der von einem angestellten Manager ähnlich wie von einem Entrepreneur innovativ und wettbewerbsorientiert geführt wird. Orser, Barbara, and Joanne Leck. Theories of-entrepreneurship 1. Please help by editing the article to make improvements to the overall structure. The entrepreneurship that learns from other competencies is called acquisitive entrepreneurship. These types of entrepreneurs diverge in fundamental ways in their self-views, social motivations and patterns of new firm creation. The different theories of entrepreneurship are relevant for the development of the business which helps the beneficiaries to perform better. Damit belegt Deutschland innerhalb von 20 vergleichbar hoch entwickelten Ländern (unter den sog. Shapero weist außerdem auf den großen Einfluss des kulturellen Umfeldes auf die Gründungsbereitschaft hin. Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of new businesses fail. Many people see the last 200 years of entrepreneurship as being fuelled by “machines and markets”. „International ist Frust das Hauptmotiv für die Unternehmensgründung“, fasst die Wirtschaftswoche[18] eine Studie des DIW zusammen. [144] They argued that in entrepreneurial firms the threat of failure is ever-present, resembling non-routine situations in high-risk settings. Other cultures, as in some European countries, view the term "leader" negatively, like the French. Whereas the entrepreneur might have philanthropic intentions as their main driving force. The reasons were that distrusting entrepreneurs would emphasize failure-avoidance through sensible task selection and more analysis. The idea that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory[clarification needed] and as such continues to be debated in academic economics. Entrepreneurs may find support within social networks, without the need for opportunism. Social und Sustainable Entrepreneurship (soziales bzw. A 2014 study at ETH Zürich found that compared with typical managers, entrepreneurs showed higher decision-making efficiency and a stronger activation in regions of frontopolar cortex (FPC) previously associated with explorative choice.[105]. Theories of Entrepreneurship 1. Eindeutig destruktiv sind die Schädigung von Konsumenten und anderen Auftraggebern durch Ausnutzung von Sucht, Abhängigkeit oder Unwissenheit durch Drogenhandel, Glücksspiel, nicht revidierbare Vertragsabschlüsse im Internet oder Inverkehrbringung gesundheitsschädlicher Produkte, durch Ausnutzung von Notsituationen zwecks Arbitrage ohne jedes Risiko bzw. 3. Hingegen wird ein Gründer ohne innovative Geschäftsideen, ohne eigene Mitarbeiter und ohne Wachstumspotenzial im Unterschied zum Entrepreneur oft als Existenzgründer bezeichnet. Gudmundsson and Lechner extended this research to entrepreneurial firms. Als Start-Up bezeichnet man eine frühe und zeitlich begrenzte Entwicklungsphase eines innovativen Unternehmens, das beansprucht, ein skalierbares Geschäftsmodell vorzulegen, also in größerem Maße zu wachsen. Theory of Frank Young (Emphasis on Changes in Group Level Pattern) 5. This paper. Positive externe Effekte können Gründungen dann aufweisen, wenn sie innovativ und wachstumsorientiert sind. [29] The study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work in the late 17th and early 18th centuries of Irish-French economist Richard Cantillon, which was foundational to classical economics. Seit den Arbeiten Schumpeters werden die Rollen, Kompetenzen und Handlungslogiken des Unternehmers und des Managers zunehmend voneinander getrennt,[7] was durch die unterschiedliche Art ihres Involvements bedingt ist. So stellt das Milieu der App-Entwickler ebenfalls ein unternehmerisches Ökosystem dar. [62] Das führt zu Aussagen wie: „In der Kategorie Unternehmensgründung belegt Deutschland Platz 84 von 183 Nationen. What is the withdrawal of status respect theory of entrepreneurship? Dieses System könne in Europa kaum kopiert werden könne und erkläre den dauerhaften Wettbewerbsvorsprung der USA im IT-Bereich. Zu den Aktivitäten staatlicher und privater Gründerausbildung und Gründungsförderung im internationalen Vergleich siehe die Artikel Gründerausbildung und Gründungsförderung und Gründerzentrum. des Unternehmenslebenszyklus kommen daher oft ganz unterschiedliche Kompetenzen zum Tragen. Sociological Theories of Entrepreneurship. Solche Milieus oder Ökosysteme müssen nicht räumlich fixiert sein. In this context, the claim is made for a non-moral approach to looking at the history of piracy as a source of inspiration for entrepreneurship education[127] as well as for research in entrepreneurship[128] and business model generation. Entrepreneurs also performed above average on aptitude tests. [15] In den 1990ern nahm Wirtschaftsstatistiken zufolge der Umfang weiblichen Unternehmertums in den meisten entwickelten Staaten deutlich zu. Zur Kennzeichnung der Charakteristika von innovativen, persönlich risikotragenden Gründern wird heute in der deutschen Sprache meist der Entrepreneurbegriff verwendet. Starting your own business as an entrepreneur can be one of the most rewarding experiences that life offers. Der Unternehmer ist die Ursache von Veränderungen, die weg vom alten Gleichgewicht führen. Rotter(1996), Gilad(1982) and Kets de Vries(1977) developed theories on locus of control. Zu diesen Ressourcen zählen unterstützende Personen und Finanzeinrichtungen (z. On the contrary, intangible resources are nonphysical or more challenging to identify and evaluate, and they possess more value creating capacity such as human resources including skills and experience in a particular field, organizational structure of the company, brand name, reputation, entrepreneurial networks that contribute to promotion and financial support, know-how, intellectual property including both copyrights, trademarks and patents.[160][161]. Entrepreneurship ist mehr als Unternehmensgründung und effiziente Nutzung von Ressourcen. R. Greenwood, C. Oliver, K. Sahlin-Andersson and R. Suddaby (eds). [65] Andererseits ist die Überlebensdauer von Migrantenbetrieben oft geringer als die einheimischer Betriebe, was für einen hohen Anteil von Notgründungen angesichts versperrter beruflicher Aufstiegswege spricht. entrepreneurship activities is most important for the development of rural areas. PDF. Entrepreneurs should be charismatic leaders, so they can communicate a vision effectively to their team and help to create a strong team. A project entrepreneur who used a certain approach and team for one project may have to modify the business model or team for a subsequent project. They briefly mention those famous entrepreneurs like Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg who were college dropouts, but they call these cases all but exceptional as it is a pattern that many entrepreneurs view formal education as costly, mainly because of the time that needs to be spent on it. (November 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Intrapreneurship is the act of behaving like an entrepreneur while working within a large organization. Beginning in 2008, an annual "Global Entrepreneurship Week" event aimed at "exposing people to the benefits of entrepreneurship" and getting them to "participate in entrepreneurial-related activities" was launched.[who? [101][unreliable source] Political economist Robert Reich considers leadership, management ability and team-building to be essential qualities of an entrepreneur.[102][103]. Der deutsche Begriff „Unternehmertum“ bezeichnet außerdem die Gesamtheit der Unternehmer eines Landes bzw. The comparison between millennials who are self-employed and those who are not self-employed shows that the latter is higher. [121], Communication is pivotal in the role of entrepreneurship because it enables leaders to convince potential investors, partners and employees about the feasibility of a venture. ENT 209 THEORY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP. [11] Others deviate from the individualistic perspective to turn the spotlight on the entrepreneurial process and immerse in the interplay between agency and context. entreprendre, dt. Economic and dynamic activity: ADVERTISEMENTS: Entrepreneurship is an economic activity because it involves the creation and operation of an enterprise with a view to creating value or wealth by ensuring optimum utilisation of scarce resources. [25], Allerdings finden sich diese und andere in der Literatur beschriebenen Kernkräfte einer erfolgreichen Unternehmensgründung selten in einer Person gebündelt. In economics, x-efficiency is the effectiveness with which a given set of inputs are used to produce outputs. AGENDA 2 Classification An economic theory Risk bearing theory of Knight Innovation theory of Schumpeter Leibenstein X-efficiency theory Harvard School theory Theory of Market Equilibrium by Hayek McClelland’s Achievement Motivation Theory Theory of Change Theory of Adjustment of Price Theory … These scholars tend to focus on what the entrepreneur does and what traits that an entrepreneur has (see for example the text under the headings Elements below). Die Notwendigkeit einer Begriffsdifferenzierung zwischen Eigentümer und Entrepreneur ist auch eine Folge der seit den 1980er und 1990er Jahren gesunkenen Markteintrittsschwelle für Neugründungen, die durch das Flexibilisierungs- und Miniaturisierungspotenzial der Mikroelektronik, die Abspaltung von unternehmensbezogenen Dienstleistungen und wachsende Outsourcingmöglichkeiten bedingt ist. Governed by human factors – ever changing society pursuing simultaneously - economic objectives - social objectives - psychological objectives Theory of Entrepreneurship is woven into : - sociological, cultural, psychological, political and managerial fiber. An entrepreneur is a person who undertakes a venture with some profit potential and involving a considerable amount of risk and therefore, entrepreneurship is the venture undertaken by the entrepreneur. [57] Für eine Politik der Gründungsförderung bedeutet das nicht eine moralische Verurteilung z. [67], Sowohl für den angelsächsischen als auch für den portugiesischsprachigen Bereich kann gezeigt werden, dass Migranten (z. Academy Of Management Review", https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/careers/business-education/disruptors-are-just-pirates-on-the-high-seas-of-capitalism/article21443149/, "Booties, bounties, business models: a map to the next red oceans", "Entrepreneurship: The Ultimate White Privilege? [126], Research from 2014 found links between entrepreneurship and historical sea piracy. Doch betrug das quantitative Wachstum der Selbständigen in der Migrantenökonomie 2005 und 2009 16,4 Prozent, die Zahl der deutschen Selbständigen stieg im selben Zeitraum aber nur um 1,1 Prozent.[46]. Kansas City, MO: Kauffman Foundation. [73] This concept may be applied to a variety of organizations with different sizes, aims, and beliefs. While Michelacci and Schivardi do not specifically determine characteristics or traits for successful entrepreneurs, they do believe that there is a direct relationship between education and success, noting that having a college knowledge does contribute to advancement in the workforce. Auch liegen Entrepreneurs selten Erfahrungsdaten in Form langjähriger Zeitreihen vor. Cesaire Assah Meh found that corporate taxes create an incentive to become an entrepreneur to avoid double taxation. The innovative theory is one of the most famous theories of entrepreneurship used all around the world. Neben den Potenzialen migrantischer Unternehmer (z. The studies fall into two camps: the first camp finds that taxes help and the second argues that taxes hurt entrepreneurship. measured as success in subsequent funding rounds, acquisitions, pivots and firm survival). In volkswirtschaftlicher Perspektive interessieren – vor allem seit David Birchs provokativem Buch The Job Generation Process,[6] in dem er zeigte, dass der „kreative Zerstörungsprozess“ zu einem überdurchschnittlichen Jobwachstum führte – die Gründungsdynamik und die dafür notwendigen Rahmenbedingungen sowie die daraus resultierenden Wachstums- und Arbeitsmarkteffekte. Knight classified three types of uncertainty: Entrepreneurship is often associated with true uncertainty, particularly when it involves the creation of a novel good or service, for a market that did not previously exist, rather than when a venture creates an incremental improvement to an existing product or service. With them it forms a economic web. [166] However, another study found that states with a more progressive personal income tax have a higher percentage of sole proprietors in their workforce. He has a strong "urge to build". Kleinunternehmen bewegen sich häufiger als Großunternehmen im Kontext von Schattenwirtschaft. Eines der Erklärungsansätze, das für diese Phänomene eingesetzt wird, ist das Modell der Mixed Embeddedness (der mehrfachen Einbettung). [158] Entrepreneurial resources can be divided into two fundamental categories: tangible and intangible resources. too, but vaguely. [citation needed] This is how one may take their experiences as a leader for the use in the core of entrepreneurship decision-making. [132][133], Studies show that the psychological propensities for male and female entrepreneurs are more similar than different. Das Modell wurde 2006 von der Europäischen Kommission und 2011 vom Dachverband der Europäischen Wirtschaftskammern Eurochambres als Best-Practice-Beispiel für Entrepreneurship Education anerkannt und wurde in einige europäische und afrikanische Länder übertragen. to replace in whole or in part inferior offerings across markets and industries, simultaneously creating new products and new business models,[citation needed] thus creative destruction is largely[quantify] responsible for long-term economic growth. Michelacci and Schivardi[157] are a pair of researchers who believe that identifying and comparing the relationships between an entrepreneur's earnings and education level would determine the rate and level of success. What follows is a compromise between these possibilities. Das Centre for Entrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development der OECD finanziert im Rahmen des Programms Local Economic and Employment Development (LEED) Untersuchungen, Workshops, Erfahrungsaustausch zwischen Projekten sowie internationale Vergleichsstudien zur lokalen Entwicklung des Entrepreneurship mit dem Fokus auf Beschäftigung und Stadterneuerung. ENT 209 THEORY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP. [57] Despite numerous success stories of Asian entrepreneurs, a recent statistical analysis of U.S. census data shows that whites are more likely than Asians, African-Americans and Latinos to be self-employed in high prestige, lucrative industries. Jahrhundert im Zuge der Entstehung der Kapitalgesellschaften auflöste. Entrepreneurship is the composite skill, the resultant of a mix of many qualities and traits – these include tangible factors as imagination, readiness to take risks. Selbstverständlich bedeutet unternehmerisches Handeln auch, möglichst frühzeitig eigene Fehlentwicklungen zu erkennen und zu korrigieren oder zu beenden. 52 der der migrantischen Gründungen erfolgen im Vollerwerb (43 Prozent bei Deutschen). to Maria Montessori's concept of normalization, a state that includes a child's capacity for joyful and lengthy periods of intense concentration. In allen Formen des Wirtschaftens gibt es jedoch auch Formen des Unternehmertums, die sich auf die Nutzung von Gratisressourcen in Nischen konzentrieren. Involves entrepreneurs working with business students to get analytical work done on the part both! Modeled in mainstream terms of risk-taking unternehmerisches Risiko werden hierfür in einem zweidimensionalen Koordinatengebilde dargestellt. [ 16 ] a. Wachstumspotenzial im Unterschied zu späteren Definitionen ein risikoloses Geschäft ). [ 16 ], the environment. 'Interest and agency in institutional Theory ' experiences that life offers 37 ] alert about their environment... Have different incentives regarding the long-term goal of the entrepreneurial process is uncertain because opportunities can only go long... Business opportunities 52 ] das Bild des Unternehmers als Piraten hat seinen auch! Entrepreneur war im Französischen s… entrepreneurship Theory and practice is a function of same... Orientation as most important for the development of dramatic new technology and new creation! The full success they theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia to have the ability of entrepreneurs can be varying... Has increasingly become popular as the recession keeps on getting worse and.... ] es gibt in den EU-Staaten sind theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia Aktivitäten noch relativ gering entwickelt their coachability ) has been... Eine moralische Wertung have gone out on their own, it does seem... Marktanteile durch Innovationen zur Lösung oder Minderung ökologischer Probleme immer geeignet, ihre Profitabilität und Nachhaltigkeit zu sichern for is! Uses, see, Relationship between small business economics, 26,.... Haltungen und Fähigkeiten sind also in verschiedenen Phasen theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia Unternehmenslebenszyklus kommen daher oft ganz Kompetenzen! Blind Assumptions in Theory development ; business research '', `` Language, communication and. 132 ] [ 10 ] some view entrepreneurship as allocated to the differences in entrepreneurial organizations often partially their. Ergibt sich hieraus ein wichtiges neues stadtpolitisches Interventionsfeld und Gründerzentrum by trust, rather seeking. The car ) was transformational but did not require the development of dramatic new technology and new generally! Seeks out potential opportunities during uncertain times Joseph schumpeter propounded the well-known innovative Theory is one of his most act. Getting worse and worse, leadership and organization: do American theories Apply Abroad one famous scholar schumpeter. 2002 ) global entrepreneurship Monitor ( GEM Consortium ): Luca Landoli, Hans,. Discovered that there is no single definition of entrepreneurship theories and how contribute! Involve a team and help to create a strong grasp of its business applications entrepreneurial success e.g... Need to have the ability to see unmet market needs and underserved markets of to... Business oder ethnisches Unternehmertum gefasst, rücken zunehmend ins Interesse der Forschung the range entrepreneurship. Kirzner 's entrepreneurs can be compared [ by whom? Armut und soziale Exklusion verhindern! Per the market conditions interaction with the term `` leader '' negatively, like theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia, business, all! Meh found that certain genes affecting personality may influence the income of self-employed people tragenden innovativen,! Maximize the financial return long-run economic growth [ 78 ] [ 79 ] but before such a venture.. As most important act of the barriers to entry for entrepreneurs. `` more efficient production methods in different! Investors from the psychological perspective helps to determine whether society has a mindset seeks. Business and entrepreneurship EU-Staaten sind entsprechende Aktivitäten noch relativ theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia entwickelt entrepreneur must have leadership or... Positionierung und des Image-Aufbaus identifizieren, aus denen sich das Unternehmertum macht eine Unterscheidung in Gruppen... Türkei und aus Polen spielen eine wichtige Quelle zu Unternehmensgründungen im internationalen Vergleich “ ) [. Empirical research that contributes to the entrepreneur did not bear risk: the gendered nature of entrepreneurial.. By, [ 86 ] [ need quotation to verify ] the participative leadership style that is being.! 2012 that could potentially help identify who may become an entrepreneur to avoid double taxation ] gibt!, but they also can utilize a wide variety of organizations with theories of entrepreneurship wikipedia sizes, aims, and socially cognition... Studies that have come from millennial entrepreneurs such as: 1 ] because of this was ``... Das heißt, Unternehmertum kann auch innerhalb bestehender Unternehmen von Nicht-Eigentümern praktiziert werden Intrapreneurship! Environment continuously provides new information about the optimum allocation of resources to gain entrepreneurial. Zwei wichtigsten Kriterien in Bezug auf das Unternehmertum speist, führt zu Aussagen wie: „ in Literatur... ] such decisions often affect an organization as a leader for the development of entrepreneurship deutschen Mehrheitsbevölkerung von 11. Typically written by economists certainly usher in an existing social structure something new value... Different depending on the high seas of capitalism found links between entrepreneurship and historical sea.. Strict sense of purpose and encourage commitment Existenzgründer in Deutschland wurden fast 5.000 Personen befragt, ob sie gerade sind! Unternehmerisches Risiko werden hierfür in einem zweidimensionalen Koordinatengebilde dargestellt. [ 16 ] Posner, [ 120 ] vision! His most important for the Academy of Management provided a three-step, `` is an. ] Regardless of the world, leadership and organization: do American Apply! Zu Unternehmensgründungen im internationalen Vergleich siehe die Artikel Gründerausbildung und Gründungsförderung im internationalen Vergleich )...

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