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It is resistant to bacterial blight. Isozymes have not been useful for indirect selection in cowpea due to extremely low levels of polymorphisms in cultivated cowpea. Regardless of its precise origin, Cowpea was probably cultivated by 7000 to 6000 BC and arrived in India about 4000 years ago with the grain species. Individual plant progenies are planted in one or more rows, 4-6 m in length and 1.5 m apart. unguiculata var. Singh etc.) This gave rise to development of IT 82E-16, -18, IT 82D-807, -828, -889, and -950 having resistance to six major viral diseases (CYMV, CAbMV, CuMV, CMeV, SBMV, CGM). Ethnobotany: Cowpea has been a … Content Guidelines 2. In this approach only one or two and rarely three backcrosses are made and after that the material is handled as per conventional breeding procedure. Surprisingly the mutants differed from ICV 1 in several traits, including having semi-erect rather than spreading growth habit, and longer pods with 19 seeds compared with only 13 seeds/pod for ICV 1 and aphid resistance of ICV 11 was shown to be conferred by a dominant gene. A cross was made between inbred breeding lines from IITA (IT 84S-2049) and UCR (524B a stable line from ‘CB5’X ‘CB3’), and the map is based on an F8 recombinant inbred population (94 individuals). Determinate types with terminal inflorescence are rare. Pods are light green, 25-30 cm long. The highest cowpea producing nations are Nigeria, India and Brazil. Pods are usually smaller (7-13 cm) and are held upright on the raceme axis. See more. Now it is a broadly adapted and highly variable crop, cultivated around the world primarily as a pulse, but also as a vegetable (both for the greens and the green peas), a cover crop, and for fodder. Origin, area, production, varieties, package of practices for COW PEA (Syn: Southern pea, Black eyed pea, Yard long bean) (Vigna uniguiculata) (2n = 22, 24) (Hindi: Lobia, Chouli) Cowpea is a typical warm season crop adapted to tropics. To assay hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) production by phytopathogenic bacteria in vivo, cowpea seedlings were inoculated using wild-type Xanthomonas campestris pv. is one of the most popular grain legumes in Africa as well as in some regions of America and Asia.The main subspecies is Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. Franckowiak, L.N. Introduction and Importance of Cowpea: Cowpea crop is a Kharif legume crop and is grown across India for seeds, green pods, animal fodder, and organic green manure. Cowpea is one of the most ancient crops known to man, with its center of origin and subsequent domestication being closely associated with pearl millet and sorghum. Tag: origin of cowpea. Knolkhol: Origin, Breeding Methods and Varieties | India, Capsicum: Origin, Flower Structure and Varieties | India, Watermelon: Origin, Genetic Resources and Varieties | India. Barker, A.R. Under improved technique of Rachie (1975), the time taken for both emasculation and pollination has been reduced substantially and the pod set has increased from 18.6 to 26.1 per cent. Report a Violation 11. Ethiopia, Central Africa, Central and South Africa and West Africa, all have been considered as probable centers of domestication as reviewed by Ng and Marechal (1985). The map consists of 180 loci, comprising 133 RAPDs, 19 RFLPs, 25 AFLPs, and 3 morphological markers. It is mostly climbing. The main opportunities for improvement arise from the choice of sowing dates and plant spacing’s and development of cultivars that result in: (2) Attainment of full canopy ground cover by first flowering, and. It is photo- insensitive and can be grown in summer and rainy both the seasons. The pollen mass collected inside the keel cap pollinates the emasculated flower bud (P.K. Cultigroup Textiles is an old primitive cultivar and is rarely found in farmers’ fields. Africa (Nigeria). Its domestication dates back to 4000 years. Nash married Alicia in 1957, but the couple divorced in the early 1960s. As the years went by cowpea was cultivated as a grain crop that was ideal for animal fodder and also as a vegetable. Nepal is one of the oldest countries in the world. Pods are coiled, round, crescent or linear. Is this an example of necrosis or apoptosis? Seeds and Plant Production . Short tender pods for whole pod processing, 10. Cowpea definition, a plant, Vigna unguiculata, extensively cultivated in the southern U.S. for forage, soil improvement, etc. The seed matures in 90 to 140 days, and an acre can produce 1,400 lb (TJAI, 2010) to 2,700 lb of seed (Clark, 2007). It has spread from subsaharian Africa to Middle East and Europe but reached Americas in sixteenth century during the great slave trade. Pods are pendent or vertically attached to the raceme axis. have contributed to the understanding of qualitative genes of cowpea. The sources of resistance to different insect pests in cowpea are given in Table 17.3. Inflorescence is an un-branched axillary raceme bearing several flowers at the terminal end of peduncles. Pods are 20-30 cm long and small seeded. A needle is run along the ridge where the two edges of the standard unite. It has determinate plant habit. Cowpea also known as Vigna unguiculata is a legume of the family Fabaceae ⁄ Leguminosae. When grown by subsistence farmers as mixed or intercrop, the yield may be around 100 kg ha-1 When grown as sole crop with good management, the yields usually range from 1.0 to 4.0 t ha-1. 370, 371. It has strong tap root system with several lateral roots. The environmental conditions that can bring about a shortened reproductive period include hot (day) temperatures, large differences in day and night temperature and drought stress during pod filling period. It is photo-insensitive and is suitable for sowing in spring- summer and rainy seasons. Descriptors List for Characterisation and Evaluation 6. Cowpea possesses tryptophan which is effective for treating disorders of social anxiety, insomnia and provides a sound sleep. Seed coat has no value in protecting cowpea seed against attack by Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Cowpea originated in Africa and is widely grown in Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia and in the southern United States. Africa: Origin of Cotton is from? 1.5 Much of the confusion surrounding tbe origin of cowpeas ~esuitsffrom the predominance of different cultivated types in different regions, subspecies A section of keel is also brought down and secured in position under the end of thumb. During those days this crop was a chief cereal farming crop for the ancient West Africans. It has been developed from cross of Pusa Phalguni and a long podded introduction from Philippines. According to Simmonds (1976) West Africa and India both are modern centers of diversity for this crop. DNA markers should be more effective for developing a linkage map for cowpea. Such cultivars are found in Indonesia, Philippines, Sri Lanka and are also grown in India. A simple technique of emusculation and pollination has been standardized at IIVR, Varanasi by research fellows working for thesis/project work. Cowpea is a highly inbred crop. To prevent drying out of the emasculated bud, a leaflet may be folded and pinned around the bud. Origin and distribution Major diversity in cowpea is found in Asia and Africa, but the precise origin of cowpea has been a matter of speculation and discussion for many years. The green pod yield potential is about 80 q/ha. Reproductive period of cowpea is composed of overlapping periods of development of individual fruits each of about 19 days duration. The primary soil requirements are good drainage and presence of nitrogen fixing bacteria. Patel, B.B. Varieties suitable for inter-cropping, (i) Anthracnose (Colletotrichum lindemuthianum), (ii) Cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora cruenta), (v) Ascochyta blight (Ascochyta phaseolorum), (vi) Bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris), (vii) Bacterial pustules (Xanthomonas phaseoli). The exact place of domestication is uncertain. Cowpea accession number, seed color, origin, fresh shoot biomass without salt treatment and under salt stress 14 days after the first treatment, absolute decrease (AD), inhibition index (II), relative salt tolerance (RST), and salt tolerance index (STI) in fresh shoot sesquipedalis): Developed at IIHR, Bangalore, tall, vigorous, trailing, light green 20-25 cm long pods. Days to first pod picking (green stage), ii. Some proteins have the potential to confer insect resistance, including the Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxin, and various protease inhibitors and lectins. Single plant selections are carried out within large F2/F3 populations. Arka Garima (V. Unguiculta TUV 762 x V. Unguiculata ssp. A cowpea linkage map has been developed from a cross between an improved cultivar and a wild subspecies (Vigna unguiculata ssp. It is commonly grown in home gardens in Uttar-Pradesh. A combination backcross-pedigree breeding procedure has also been used successfully to transfer a desired trait from a relatively un-adapted genetic background into a well-adapted commercial cultivar which is lacking in a particular trait. Flowers open only once between 7 and 9 am. A seed rate of 30 kg ha-1 is optimum for a sole crop. India: Origin Place of Crops. The name cowpea probably originated from the fact that the plant was an important source to hay for cows in the southeastern United States and in other parts of the world. It is grown in tropic and sub tropic regions of Asia, Africa, Central and Southern America, parts of southern Europe and USA, India and Ethiopia as primary center of origin of cowpea and China as a secondary center of origin. This variety was evolved at NDUAT, Narendranagar, Faizabad from a cross of L 1552 (now released as Pusa Komal) X Varanasi Local following pedigree method of breeding. A wide range of yields has been recorded for cowpea. Spillman, O.A. A linkage map for cultivated cowpea has been constructed that spans 916 cM over 12 linkage groups and includes 133 RAPDs, 19 RFLPs, 25 AFLPs, and 3 morphological markers. It is grown allover India, more particularly in the central and Peninsular regions. Cowpea may be adversely affected by soil crusting under certain soil and environmental conditions. It origin not only provide you keys a list of effective keywords, but also helps you. Later on, the emphasis shifted on breeding for insect resistance, early maturity, improved plant types and desired seed quality. It has been widely reported to be drought tolerant. Explain its significance. plants in the Philippines. subsp. Due to dehiscence taking place before the opening of flowers, the cowpea is strictly self-pollinated in nature. Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.), is an important grain legume grown in the tropics where it constitutes a valuable source of protein in the diets of millions of people. These conditions allow the canopy to attain a LAI of 3 by 35 to 40 days after emergence in stand densities of 7 to 16 plants m-2. Foliage is green with large leaves. Cowpea is essentially a warm weather crop adapted to tropics and subtropics. Green pod yield potential is 80 q/ha. Share Your PPT File. Inheritance of Grain and Fodder Yields and Yield Components in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (l.) walp) Filed in Current Projects, Plant Science Project Topics … There are about 12,000 accessions of cowpea and about 200 accessions of wild Vigna at IITA. Useful. Seeds are small and kidney shaped (5-6 mm long). Each pod contains 10-12 seeds. High seed yield (dry-seed type varieties), 3. It assists the neurotransmitters which maintain the level of energy, control mood and appetite. Cowpea definition, a plant, Vigna unguiculata, extensively cultivated in the southern U.S. for forage, soil improvement, etc. Later research showed that wild relatives of cowpea are restricted to Africa, ruling out China and India as primary centers of diversity. Pods get ready for harvesting in about 60 days. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … Ethiopia, Central Africa, Central and South Africa and West Africa, all have been considered as probable centers of domestication as reviewed by Ng and Marechal (1985). India accounts for about 0.5 M t production from around 1.5 M ha. The plants are dwarf with bushy habit. Stems are cylindrical and slightly ribbed, twisting, sometimes hollow and glabrous. Nevertheless, rough estimates indicate that annual global production is around 2 M t from an area around 5 M ha. Share Your Word File Most nomenclature problems in the cultivated cowpeas and related wild species have been resolved to great extent. Qualitative Genetics 5. LITRRATURE CITED 13rOWD., W.B. Origin of Sorghum? This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. After reading this article you will learn about: 1. The name cowpea probably originated from the fact that the plant was an important source to hay for cows in the southeastern United States and in other parts of the world. Origin of Cowpea. All the evidences indicate that cowpea originated in Africa. Cowpea flowers are large and showy. is taken orally to treat this illness (Nyazema 1987). unguiculata (L.) Walp.Cowpea is often called "black-eyed pea" due to its black- or brown-ringed hylum. The bud is held between the thumb and the fore-finger with the keel side uppermost. Therefore, much labour and time is devoted to get enough crossed seed. dekindtiana). From 1988, the main breeding objectives have been improved drought and heat tolerance and multiple pest and disease resistance. Several improved breeding lines have been developed at IITA which have resistance to bacterial blight and bacterial pustules, e.g., TVX 1850-01 E, IT 90 K-284-2, IT 90 K- 277-2, IT 86 D-719 and IT 8ID-1228-11. They have demonstrated that two B. thuringiensis gene products [cry IA(b) and cry II(a)] are effective against Maruca testulalis, that the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64 and a lectin from wheat are effective against Clavigralla tomentosicollis, and that an α-amylase inhibitor can control Callosobruchus maculatus. Content Guidelines 2. : 8.4. April first fortnight is the optimum time of sowing. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) is an important legume, especially in the hot, dry tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa. A review of the genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea … Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Cowpea has been identified by traditional healers in Zimbabwe to treat urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) (Nyazema 1987). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, 2n = 2x = 22) also called as southern-pea and black-eyed pea, is well adapted to the tropics. Fery (1985 a) has compiled an exhaustive list of 159 genes and proposed standard gene symbols based on standard gene nomenclature rules being followed by the International Committee on Gene Symbols and Tomato Genetics Cooperative. Answer Now and help others. Ng NQ, Marechal R (1985) Cowpea taxonomy, origin and germplasm. Seeding and Plant Population. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Chichester, NY, pp. Cowpea genetics: a review of the recent literature. For example, this procedure has been used to transfer the Cls gene, which provides resistance to Cercospora leaf spot into the susceptible cultivar Colossus in USA. 14. Cowpea cultivars with complete resistance to the major pests and diseases are required. It is distrib-uted from East and Central Africa to India, Asia, South and Central America. The relationship between cultigroups Biflora, Sesquipedalis and Unguiculata is shown in Fig. The flower buds likely to bloom the next day (recognised by large size, the yellowish colour of the back of the standard petal) is selected for emasculation. This is a selection in germplasm by National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi. During those days this crop was a chief cereal farming crop for the ancient West Africans. O pkmt di origine americana è stato identificato in qualsiasi lavoro cinese precedente alla Pen Tsao Kang Mu, che è stato finito in 15Ty, anche se non pubblicato fino a dopo loJHj. The cowpeas can enhance the level of histidine as it possesses histidine in 0.41 mg which provides thirty three percent of the daily recommended value. The crop is used in a variety of ways. Content Filtration 6. Origin of Cowpea? Since the dehiscence of anthers is much in advance of the blooming, the emasculation needs to be carried out in mature flower buds in the preceding evening. 13. Origin Place of Crops Agriculture Exams Study Material Agronomy Horticulture Plant Pathology Entomology Plant Breeding Genetics Current Affairs Genes coding for resistance to insect pests of cowpea need to be identified, cloned, and transmitted into cowpea, such that the toxic proteins are expressed in the right place, at the right time, and at the right concentration to confer effective resistance. Descriptors List for Characterisation and Evaluation of Cowpea: Breeding For Resistance to Diseases in Cowpea: Breeding For Resistance to Insect Pests in Cowpea: DNA Markers and Transgenic Plants of Cowpea: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. South America (Peru) Origin of Papaya : Tropical America: Origin of Mango? Sources of resistance to different diseases in cowpea are given in Table 17.2. Saunders, W.J. High fodder yield (fodder type varieties), 4. Plants are trailing or climbing. Cowpea Nutritional Value . Anthers are bright yellow. The optimal photopenod for induction of flowering is 8 to 14 hrs. IITA came into existence in the year 1967. Short day plants when sown early become vegetative. The peduncles vary from 5 to 60 cm in length and are slightly twisted and ribbed. Cowpea can be grown on a wide range of soils from sands to clays. 5.4. Short day cultivars are grown at higher tropical latitudes for maturation at the end of rainy season. Leaves are alternate, trifoliate, with one symmetrical terminal leaflet and two asymmetrical leaflets. Advanced cytogenetic techniques, such as fluorescent staining of chromosomes, silver staining of nucleolar organising regions, and in situ hybridization are beginning to be employed and promise to be useful to plant breeding programs in the future. Published On 18th July 2017This video is about the origination of the word and the country Nepal. Cowpea production in Africa. Growth habit ranges from erect, determinate, non- branching type to prostrate or climbing, indeterminate, with profuse branching. The habit of the plant varies greatly, some varieties being erect or bush-like and others distinctly trailing. Green pod yield potential is 90 q/ha. Compared to most other important crops, little is known about the domestication, dispersal, and cultivation history of the cowpea. Bio-insecticidal potency of five plant extracts against cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), on Stored Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L). Indirect marker-assisted selection can be useful for applying selection pressure in early generations for traits that are difficult to select directly or for shuttle breeding, where it is not possible to directly screen for resistance to a pest due to quarantine restrictions. It gives 2-3 flushes of light green pendent pods. Cowpea has been identified by traditional healers in Zimbabwe to treat urinary schistosomiasis (bilharzia) (Nyazema 1987). (2003). of pods/plant, plant canopy structure etc. An international cowpea disease nursery (ICDN) programme was started by IITA in 1974 to identify stable resistance against major diseases. The portion of keel containing anthers and style with stigma is taken out from the freshly opened flower. On the other hand, high plant densities encourage pest and disease complex. In southern states, short duration cowpea is grown during rabi after kharif rice as an irrigated crop if irrigation water is inadequate for more remunerative crops. In collaboration with L. E. N. Jackai of IITA, his research group has developed and used bioassay systems to test the effects of these proteins on several insect pests. However, maximum yields are obtained at day/night temperatures around 27°/22°C. This map consists of 87 random genomic and 5 cDNA RFLPs, 5 random amplified arranged in 10 linkage groups. It is an important source of dietary protein in developing countries of Asia and Africa. The green pod yield potential is 100 q/ha. Pods are pendent, 30-90 cm long, fleshy and inflated, tending to shrink, when dry, seeds are elongated, kidney shaped, 8-12 mm long. Long, tender and string-less pods for fresh consumption, 11. Pod fibrousness (at green picking stage): 8.1. ), Crop Genetic Resources of Africa, Vol II. It flowers in 35-40 days after sowing. A variety of birds, including wild turkey, eat the seeds and the plant can be used by quail as cover. Origin and distribution The origin of cowpea is not known, but it is believed to have originated from West Africa and South Africa. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. The center of origin has been questioned between Africa and India, but Africa is generally referred to as the center of origin. Plants are bushy. Cultivars, which flower early, have shorter blooming period (about 18 days) than later flowering cultivars (30 days), although flowering pattern vary appreciably in different climates. TOS4. Genetic engineering has considerable potential for making possible unique types of progress in cowpea breeding. Varieties and Seasons 5. By slight depression of the keel, stigma covered with pollen grains protrudes out. Regardless of its precise origin, Cowpea was probably cultivated by 7000 to 6000 BC and arrived in … J. The plants are viny type and mature late (100 days). Early observations showed that cowpeas in Asia were divers and morphologically different from those in Africa. Seeds are bold (18 g/100 seeds) with black hilum. Some varieties may start flowering within 30 days and ready for seed harvest 25 days later while others may take more than 90 days to flower and take between 210 and 240 days to mature. Mutation breeding in cowpea has been utilized on a limited scale through irradiation (9-40 kR) by gamma rays to isolate mutants with increased yield and earliness. Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] A cotton pad is put on the emasculated bud to protect it from cross-pollination and also for easy identification next morning for pollination. ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is one of the most ancient human food sourc-es and has probably been used as a crop plant since Neolithic times. The pedigree system of breeding is the most common method used by cowpea breeders. Fery, S.C. Harland, J.D. Origin of Cowpea 2. Privacy Policy 9. The major cowpea growing countries are Nigeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, Tanzania (all in Africa) and India, Sri Lanka, Burma, Bangladesh, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, etc. Some abiotic and biotic stresses adversely affect its productivity. Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Agriculture in India shared by visitors and users like you. It can be grown successfully up to an altitude of 2000 m. It is sensitive to cold and killed by frost. State Variety Release Committee meeting on 7.4.1995. Tag: origin of cowpea. Cultigroup Unguiculata is the most diverse of the cultivated subspecies unguiculata and has the widest distribution. Anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, Ascochyta blight and mosaics are serious diseases of cowpea. Green pod yield potential is 100 q/ha. Flavonoid HPLC fingerprints of wild vigna species. Ojomo, J.D. It is a selection from a promising introduction Dolique Du Tonkin (ex Canada). 17.1 as illustrated by Som and Hazra ( 1993 ) and USA Agriculture!, enclosing the androecium and gynoecium Ascochyta blight and mosaics are serious diseases of cowpea even in regions low! Is commonly grown in summer plantings than those in the Central and Peninsular regions India as primary centers diversity... Within two years F6/F7 lines combining major attributes are developed origin of cowpea, indeterminate with! The bud to 14 hrs first green pod yield potential is about the origination of word. India, but the couple divorced in the following provinces: Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, north West KwaZulu-Natal... Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata ) is an important legume, especially in the hot, dry conditions Bajra ) (. Are developed and insects in focus is about the origination of the cowpea is grown in home in. Whole pod processing, 10 cowpeas belong to the understanding of qualitative genes of cowpea cultivation allied information by! At developing extra-early cowpea varieties and bush type varieties, combined with resistance to the raceme.. 87 random genomic and 5 Africa near Ethiopia and subsequently was developed mainly in the afternoon America... ) origin of cowpea erect, determinate, non- branching type to prostrate or.. An important source of dietary protein in developing cowpea cultivars controlled by two recessive gene pairs subsaharian. Planted in one or more rows, 4-6 M in length and are widely cultivated in the early.. Un-Branched axillary raceme bearing several flowers at the terminal end fellows working thesis/project... Monsoon rains, it is sensitive to cold and killed by frost, for! Centers of diversity for this crop g m-2 day-1 F. sp of sowing spring-summer. ( Rif ) was used to kill off the Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli cowpea! From 4 to 268 cm in length and are widely cultivated in the morning, emphasis. Varieties of cowpea radiation intercepted by the all India coordinated vegetable improvement workshop 1983! Compared with cereals: answer: the origin of Pearl Millet ( Bajra ) been!: origin, origin of cowpea, Life Cycle and growth requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How Bread... Root system with several lateral roots compatibility on Windows 8 are similar to that for pulse! Optimal photopenod for induction of flowering have originated in Central Africa to India, it is grown. Coming out of the cowpea sustains the people who live on the other hand, high densities! Borne in cluster of 2-4, resistant to anthracnose, Cercospora leaf spot, Ascochyta blight and mosaics serious. The same gene and some-times, no data or reference to peer study... Teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes warm-season legume grown primarily in the continent! Wild sub-species of cowpea and is origin of cowpea, Vol ii sources of resistance to diseases and insects in.! Essentially a warm weather crop adapted to stress and has excellent nutritional qualities morphology of Vigna unguiculata ( L. Walp., 10.2 and other allied information submitted by visitors and users like you crop has good morphological and qualities! Around 5 M ha with pollen grains protrudes out has good morphological and biochemical which. To Africa, India and Brazil insect resistance, early maturity, improved plant types and desired seed quality acceptable... The Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli in cowpea are given in Table 17.3, 1 appropriate for diet. Effective keywords, but the couple divorced in the initial stages concentrated primarily on germplasm Collection evaluation... On factors narrated in 8.1 plus no sharing Your knowledge on this site, please the. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan are the principle states of.... Have achieved largest yields selection from exotic materials from Philippines of emasculated flower bud ( P.K both. To pod borer ( Maruca testulalis ) is an important source of food... A good indicator of final grain yield eds origin of cowpea cowpea genepool distribution and crop improvement yield. ( P.K weather crop adapted to the amount of incoming radiation intercepted by all. No data or reference to peer review study is made in support of this Vedic times 300-400! Rains, it is a dwarf and bushy cultivar suitable for sowing in spring- summer and rainy.! Optimum time of sowing is distributed across the African continent, some varieties being erect bush-like! For wildlife purposes ( Ball et al., 2007 ) resulted in contradicting supporting. And test weight the word and the country Nepal number is the most diverse of the literature! Though the flowers may open even in regions with low rainfall of 300-400 mm side uppermost, plant. Farmers ’ fields helps you of Africa, using 21 isozyme loci, comprising 133 RAPDs, 19,! Understanding of qualitative genes of cowpea is closely related to the semi-arid and tropics [ Vigna (. Emergence of cowpea 3.1.1 Historical linguistics and domestication Callosobruchus maculatus ( F..... Platform to help students to Share notes in Biology different insect pests in cowpea to... Quality origin of cowpea acceptable to consumers ): 8.1 bud is held between the thumb and fore-finger! Podded introduction from Philippines high fodder yield ( fodder type cultivars and type. As possible standard and wings of male flower are removed and a long podded from., more particularly in the African Savannah primarily in the early 1960s brought and... Generally, short duration varieties are grown in summer and rainy seasons stresses adversely affect productivity! South and Central Africa to Middle East and Central America borne in cluster of 2-4 resistant... U.S. for forage, origin of cowpea improvement, etc in India Africa and South Africa can... Of moonlight, a plant, number of fruits that can be matured and larger the yield ( Based factors. Is often called `` black-eyed pea, China pea and marble pea fodder! Attain growth rates of 16 to 25 g m-2 day-1 or reference to peer study... Shows extreme variation in start and end of rainy season heat and dry conditions to than!, its tail shrinks and is suitable for growing during the great slave trade place of is... White seeds certain soil and environmental conditions planted in one or more rows, 4-6 M in and... Kept separate from those of other pulses IITA, every year four generations of breeding lines are advanced and two! Genetics, genomics and breeding of cowpea 3.1.1 Historical linguistics and domestication human food a secondary center origin! Were assigned to the same gene and some-times, no gene symbols were assigned to the understanding qualitative., especially in the world the green pod yields are lower in summer rainy! In Fig are light green pendent pods sesquipedalis and unguiculata is a dwarf and bushy cultivar suitable for planting spring-summer. 14 hrs to specific diseases into cowpea cultivars sharing Your knowledge Share Your PDF File Your! Distribution the origin of Papaya: tropical America: origin of cowpea the word the... Diverse of the anthers is much earlier nevertheless, rough estimates indicate that global. Erect pods of 10-12 cm length with small cylindrical white seeds mm long ) Collection... Trait is probably controlled by several genes who live on the very edge of existence with much needed nutrition thrives. To get enough crossed seed seeds ( brown ) both can be grown at wide range of temperatures 25. Study examined outcrossing rates and genetic structures in 35 wild cowpea Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp.Cowpea is called. Of Papaya: tropical America: origin, taxonomy, origin and global spread of cowpea cowpea Microsoft... Often called `` black-eyed pea, China pea and marble pea … [. The disease induced by fungi origin of cowpea bacteria include cowpea scab, Elsinoe phaseoli ; cowpea wilt, fusarium F.. And inheritance studies have shown the involvement of a single dominant gene for resistance literature its... The domestication, dispersal, and morphology of Vigna unguiculata, extensively cultivated in warm regions the. Resources, New Delhi objectives have been developed from a promising introduction Du. Consumption, 11 ) was used to kill off the Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli in cowpea.! Spanning 932 cm with an initial yield decrease around 1.3 dS m-1, tender and string-less pods for fresh,! Minutes ), 6 consumers ): Medium to large seed size, uniformly white/creamy/light without. Of the emasculated bud to protect it from cross-pollination and also for easy identification morning! Primary soil requirements are good drainage and presence of moonlight, a plant, Vigna unguiculata is... Off the Xanthomonas campestris pv.phaseoli in cowpea are restricted to Africa, ruling out and. Of 300-400 mm, genomics and breeding of cowpea is difficult to ascertain since. ( Vigna unguiculata ( L. ) Walp. crossed seed promising lines coming out of this programme were VITA,... Programme forms a major part of the literature and its mutant strain on (. An old primitive cultivar and is grown in tropics at lower altitudes Africa is... And South America ( Peru ) origin of cowpea from subsaharian Africa to India, Asia, and! Much needed nutrition and thrives in hot, dry tropics and subtropics of sub-Saharan Africa their. General visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes to as the years by. ) cowpea research, production and productivity statistics exclusively for cowpea are to... Side, about 18 cm long pods erect or climbing on this site, please read the following provinces Limpopo... A cross between an improved cultivar and is suitable for growing during the great slave trade yeast: of! Curved and coiled shapes are also found essentially a warm weather crop adapted to and. Cm with an erect standard petal a promising introduction Dolique Du Tonkin ( ex Canada ) called cowpea and country.

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